A selection of M&V 'Czech Republic' articles
Ensemble. Symphonic Thinking - Smetana, Bartók and Dvorák from Augustin Hadelich, Juanjo Mena and the BBC Philharmonic, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
CD Spotlight. Hauntingly Beautiful - Orchestral music by Louis Babin, recommended by Geoff Pearce. '... the string sound of the Moravian Philharmonic is warm and sumptuous.'
CD Spotlight. Highly Enjoyable - Jazz piano etudes by Milan Dvorák, heard by Gerald Fenech. '... Milan Franek gives wonderfully lighthearted interpretations ...'
CD Spotlight. Wonderfully Carefree - Czech Christmas Carols, enjoyed by Keith Bramich. '... the tunes, settings and performances are quite beautiful.'
Ensemble. Earthy Vigour - Smetana, Beethoven and Sibelius from Jennifer Pike, Pietari Inkinen and the Prague Symphony Orchestra, impress Mike Wheeler
CD Spotlight. Feral Wildness - Music by Osias Wilenski, heard by the late Howard Smith. 'Lauded for his compositional style, Wilenski's unique works range from narrative symphonic poems and operatic spin-offs to instrumental miniatures.'
CD Spotlight. Judged to Perfection - Schubert and Vorísek piano music, recommended by Geoff Pearce. '... a truly magical disc ...'
CD Spotlight. Very Worthwhile - Vocal music by Michael Murray impresses Geoff Pearce. 'I could not fault the performances, and believe that they represent Michael Murray's vocal works well.'
Ensemble. Vividly Delivered - Tom Redmond's new spoken commentary to Britten's 'Young Person's Guide' impresses Mike Wheeler
CD Spotlight. Rarely Heard - Piano music by Klement Slavický, reviewed by Howard Smith. '... excellently performed and produced.'
Ensemble. A Timeless Message - 'Jenufa' at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna impresses Giuseppe Pennisi
CD Spotlight. Beautifully Performed - Contemporary orchestral music, enjoyed by Geoff Pearce. 'Very pleasurable and committed performances.'
CD Spotlight. The Genuine Article - Dvorák from the Lucerne Symphony Orchestra, heard by Stephen Francis Vasta. '... I'm looking forward to hearing and seeing more of Gaffigan's work ...'
CD Spotlight. A Real Discovery - Eastern European music for bassoon and piano, heard by Geoff Pearce. '... great performances from Maria Wildhaber and her colleagues ...'
CD Spotlight. Let It Be - The Beatles for string quartet, heard by Howard Smith. 'The four Wihan players ... give this disc their best shot.'
CD Spotlight. Euro Folk Champions - The Apollo Chamber Players, impress Howard Smith. '... this scantily adorned traditional music derives straight from the heartbeat of regions in Southern, Eastern, and Central Europe.'
DVD Spotlight. Panache and Style - Janácek's 'The Cunning Little Vixen', reviewed by Robert Anderson. '... much bewitching music ...'
CD Spotlight. Orchestral Vivacity - Music by Emma Lou Diemer, heard by Patric Standford. '... some undoubted aptitude ...'
DVD Spotlight. Unstinted Commitment - Janáček's Cunning Little Vixen, enjoyed by Gerald Fenech
CD Spotlight. Mostly Excellent - Smetana's 'The Bartered Bride', heard by Stephen Francis Vasta. '... a fine performance ...'
Ensemble. A Real Thriller - Makropoulos in the Lagoon, with Giuseppe Pennisi
CD Spotlight. Vividly Atmospheric - Music by composers in Theresienstadt, heard by Howard Smith. 'The Nash players' programme is presented with their customary aplomb ...'
CD Spotlight. Last Musician - Orchestral music by Michael Mauldin, heard by Howard Smith. '... the Moravian ensemble sounds rather congested.'
Ensemble. Cruelly Written Out - Simon Broughton listens to works by Gideon Klein and Hans Krása
CD Spotlight. Sensitive Understanding - Music by Kodály and Dohnányi, heard by Robert Anderson. '... the orchestra captures with apparent ease the seductive idiom of this music.'
CD Spotlight. Intuitive Understanding - Dvorák string quartets, heard by Stephen Francis Vasta. 'I enjoyed these flavorful performances when listening more casually ...'
CD Spotlight. Drama and Poetry - Schubert late string quartets, recommended by Howard Smith. '... as good as it gets.'
CD Spotlight. Melodic Best - Recent concerti for strings, heard by Ron Bierman. 'Warmly recommended.'
CD Spotlight. A Mixed Bag - Modern music for wind instruments, heard by Paul Sarcich. '... decent production values.'
CD Spotlight. Slavic Spirit - Janácek's Sinfonietta and Glagolitic Mass, heard by Paul Sarcich. '... Wit and his Polish forces come out of it all extremely well indeed.'
CD Spotlight. Extremely Beautiful - Arrangements of Dvorák songs recommended by Gerald Fenech. 'The intense rapport between both artists can immediately be felt ...'
Ensemble. Nearly Late Romantic - Giuseppe Pennisi was at the opening night of the new production in Florence of Janácek's 'The Makropoulos Case'
Ensemble. Faith and the Devil - Giuseppe Pennisi reports on Janácek and Strauss at the Salzburg Summer Festival
DVD Spotlight. Admirable Intentions - Gillian Rogell teaches chamber music, observed by Howard Smith. 'It's all fairly basic stuff ...'
CD Spotlight. Great Performances - Dvorák's Cello and Piano Concertos, heard by Stephen Francis Vasta. '... it's a pleasure to hear Mstislav Rostropovich at this early stage of his career ...'
CD Spotlight. Consummate Mastery - Beethoven Piano Concertos, recommended by Howard Smith. '... worth a king's ransom.'
Ensemble. Christ Re-Crucified - Giuseppe Pennisi was at the Italian première of Bohuslav Martinu's Greek Passion
Ensemble. Unmissable Talents - An array of artists at London's Wigmore Hall, reviewed by Bill Newman
Mahler versus Mahler - Two symphony orchestras are playing Mahler in Rome, by Giuseppe Pennisi
CD Spotlight. Vital and Committed - Music for string quartet by Janácek and Dvorák , recommended by Robert Anderson. '... an outstanding disc ...'
CD Spotlight. Many Levels - Chamber music by Mozart and Smetana, heard by Howard Smith. '... judged to perfection ...'
Passport to Heaven - Bill Newman listens to the Russian pianist Nelly Akopian-Tamarina
Confidently Entertaining - A recital by John Paul Ekins delights Bill Newman
Ensemble. Highly Dramatic - The Wihan Quartet at Kings Place, heard by Bill Newman
CD Spotlight. Marvelously Incisive - Rózsa and Korngold violin concertos, recommended by Howard Smith. '... breathtaking virtuosity from soloist and orchestra alike.'
CD Spotlight. Lightness of Touch - Brahms and Strauss, heard by Patric Standford. '... a very fine performance by Joshua Pierce ...'
DVD Spotlight. Forthright Tempos - The Wihan Quartet plays Beethoven, heard by Howard Smith. '... little to truly set their work apart ...'
CD Spotlight. Matchless Artistry - The Wihan Quartet plays Dvorák, recommended by Howard Smith. '... the finest of bravura chamber performances.'
Profile. With Perfection in Mind - Bill Newman talks to all four members of the Wihan Quartet
CD Spotlight. Quite Magical - Marin Alsop conducts Dvorák Symphonies, enjoyed by Howard Smith. 'The Baltimores' finale sings and blazes with equal compulsion ...'
CD Spotlight. Sheer Delight - Table music by Biber, recommended by Patric Standford. '... a superb and sensitive performance ...'
CD Spotlight. Striking Originality - Piano music by Moscheles, Mendelssohn and Schumann, heard by Robert Anderson. '...Todd Crow deserves unstinted gratitude.'
Ensemble. Impeccable Standards - Bill Newman's pick of June and July concerts at London's Wigmore Hall
Ensemble. Opera in the Arena - Rebecca Schmid listens to Renée Fleming and the Berlin Philharmonic
CD Spotlight. A Shattered Mirror - Paganini caprices arranged for string quartet, heard by Howard Smith. '... technically cluttered.'
Ensemble. Love's Eternal Empire - Music by Janácek and Suk impresses Bill Newman
Ensemble. An Ideal Balance - An evening with the Northern Sinfonia and friends delights Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Boldly Programmed - Music by Antonín Tucapský, Petr Eben and Vaughan Williams, heard by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Power and Expressiveness - Janácek's 'Katya Kabanova', reviewed by Robert Hugill
CD Spotlight. Formidably Difficult - Antonín Dvorák's Piano Concerto, heard by Stephen Francis Vasta. '... commendable, as far as it goes.'
Ensemble. Quirky Opera - Mike Wheeler experiences Janácek's 'The excursions of Mr Broucek'
CD Spotlight. Impeccable Technique - Beethoven's middle string quartets, heard by Robert Anderson. 'The outer movements induce some grinding of teeth.'
CD Spotlight. Utterly Absorbing - A sampler from Cedille Records, enjoyed by Howard Smith. '... top quality standards.'
CD Spotlight. Perfection of Ensemble - Beethoven's early string quartets, heard by Robert Anderson. '... no excuse for the near-supersonic velocity ...'
CD Spotlight. Towering Achievement - Beethoven's late string quartets impress Robert Anderson. '... full marks to these players ...'
Record Box. Intimate Demands - Music by Igor Krivokapic, heard by Patric Standford
Ensemble. A Different Sort of Beauty - Janácek's 'The Cunning Little Vixen', reviewed by Robert Hugill
Ensemble. Another Treat - Martinu's 'Mirandolina' at Garsington Opera, by Roderic Dunnett
CD Spotlight. A Real Work-out - Jane Parker-Smith at the organ of St Gudula, Rhede, enjoyed by Kelly Ferjutz
CD Spotlight. Sensuality and Freedom - Stokowski conducts Schubert and Dvorák, heard by Béla Hartmann. '... one is never left in any doubt as to the force of the conductor ...'
Ensemble. Refreshingly Different - Mike Wheeler listens to the Prague Symphony Orchestra
Ensemble. Beautifully Handled - Haydn, Dvorák and Lawrie Rose from the Iuventus Quartet, heard by Mike Wheeler
Record Box. Full and Resonant - Violin concertos by Bohuslav Martinu, reviewed by Patric Standford
Ensemble. Meltingly Beautiful - Joshua Bell joins Vladimir Ashkenazy and the New World Symphony for music by Saint-Saëns and Mahler, reviewed by Lawrence Budmen
Record Box. Unique Timbres - A recording by The Brahms Trio Prague, reviewed by George Balcombe
Ensemble. Profoundly Moving - English Touring Opera's 'Rusalka', reviewed by Robert Hugill
Ensemble. An Exhilarating Performance - Tim Lowe plays Haydn, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Unsentimental Realism - Howard Smith was at Janácek's 'Jenufa' in Wellington
Old and New Worlds - Ioana Osoianu talks to Keith Bramich about her life in the East and West
CD Spotlight. Melodic Impact - Music by Spohr, Rolla and Kalliwoda, reviewed by Howard Smith. '... seasoned insights and faultless empathy.'
CD Spotlight. Lovingly Accomplished - Forgotten music by Saint-Saëns, enjoyed by Howard Smith. '... a performance of avowed committment.'
Lust in A Major - Marsha Cappy's tale takes place in Prague in 1905 ...
Record Box. Unmissable - Marin Alsop conducts Dvorák, recommended by Gerald Fenech
Ensemble. Sustained Intensity - Rex Harley enjoys Janácek's 'The Cunning Little Vixen' at Longborough Festival Opera
Ensemble. Traditional or Radical? - Dvorák's 'Rusalka' at Grange Park Opera, reviewed by Robert Hugill
Ensemble. Truly Special - Kelly Ferjutz enjoys Dvorák's 'Rusalka'
Good-hearted Buoyancy - Dvorák and Brahms from Derby, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Wonderfully Refreshing - Antoni Wit and the Warsaw Philharmonic on tour impress Mike Wheeler
Record Box. Bright Performances - Music for strings by Josef Myslivecek, reviewed by Patric Standford
Ensemble. Faultless Unanimity - A concert by the Roberts Quartet, enjoyed by Mike Wheeler
DVD Spotlight. Mozart and Smetana - The Nobilis Trio at Steinway Hall, reviewed by Howard Smith. '... musically pleasurable.'
Original and Brilliant - Trevor Barrett considers Dvorák's 'New World Symphony' as the most important symphonic work in American history
Ensemble. Beautifully Judged - Mike Wheeler draws attention to the Lithuanian National Philharmonic Orchestra
Ensemble. A Majestic Reading - Mike Wheeler is impressed by Sibelius, Bach and Smetana from Pietari Inkinen and the CBSO
Ensemble. On Fine Form - Jeremy Hagan and the Derby Concert Orchestra, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Some Beautiful Singing - Dvorák's 'Rusalka' at the Prague State Opera, reviewed by Karen Haid
Ensemble. Stunning Precision - Janácek's 'Jenufa' in LA, reviewed by Maria Nockin
Ensemble. Brilliantly Engaging - Jirí Antonín Benda's 'Romeo and Juliet', reviewed by Roderic Dunnett
Record Box. Singing Qualities - Jennifer Koh plays Szymanowski, Martinu and Bartók, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
CD Spotlight. A Sheer Delight - Orchestral music by Dvorák, reviewed by Patric Standford. '... vigorous and vital ...'
CD Spotlight. Quite Magical - Staatskapelle Berlin plays Mahler's Ninth [listen], recommended by Patric Standford. 'Barenboim and Mahler are fine partners.'
Ensemble. A Riveting Evening - Janácek's 'Katya Kabanová', reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Fine Playing - The Czech National Symphony on tour, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. A Sonorous Feast - Music-making by Cédric Tiberghien, Jirí Belohlávek and the BBC Symphony Orchestra, reviewed by Malcolm Miller
Ensemble. Simply Ravishing - Sakari Oramo and the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra play Mahler, enjoyed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. New Light - A performance by Christian Knapp and the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
A Comprehensive Overview - David Hurwitz on Dvorák, recommended by Ron Bierman
CD Spotlight. Perceptive Musicianship - Oboe concertos played by Andrea Gullickson [listen], enjoyed by Howard Smith. '... highly recommended ...'
Ensemble. Zip and Sparkle? - The Munich Symphony Orchestra on tour, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
A Radiant Performance - Ashley Wass in Derby, assessed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Power and Effervescence - Mozart's 'Don Giovanni', reviewed by Maria Nockin
Ensemble. A Glowing Performance - The Czech Philharmonic on tour, reviewed by Mike Wheeler
Ensemble. Passion and Commitment - English National Opera's 'Jenufa', appreciated by Robert Hugill
Ensemble. Sunshine and Stars - The Australian Festival of Chamber Music 2006 continues, and Malcolm Tattersall sends a second report
Ensemble. Music in Captivity - Malcolm Miller was at a lecture recital by Ronald Senator, with Teresa Gobel and Miriam Brickman
Ensemble. 'I wandered through Theresienstadt' - Malcolm Miller was at a Terezin concert on the eve of Holocaust Day 2006
Ensemble. Flair and momentum - Malcolm Miller enjoys a highlight of the BBC Radio 3 Lunchtime Mozart Quartet Series
CD Spotlight. Spirited ease - Songs of Jewish life, reviewed by Howard Smith. '... calm and delight to perfection ...'
Record box. Power and pathos - Temirkanov conducts Mahler, reviewed by Alice McVeigh
CD Spotlight. Dramatically aggressive - Orchestral music by Robert Kurka, enjoyed by Ron Bierman. 'Strongly recommended.'
CD Spotlight. A prodigious composer - Orchestral music by Meyer Kupferman, reviewed by Patric Standford. '... an extrovert, highly charged composer with a vivid sonic imagination and a sure skill in orchestration.'
CD Spotlight. Great sensitivity - Music for wind instruments by Karel Husa, recommended by Patric Standford. '... delightful discoveries, highly recommended.'
Record box. The perceptive oboe - Nancy Ambrose King plays oboe concertos, reviewed by Basil Ramsey
CD Spotlight. Valued archives - Stokowski and the classic Columbias, reviewed by Patric Standford. '... a powerful performance ...'
Ensemble. An original statement - Claudio Bohorquez plays Dvorák, appreciated by Lawrence Budmen
CD Spotlight. Fundamental spirit - The Pergamenschikow-Gililov recordings 1990-1994, appreciated by Tess Crebbin. '... fresh and invigorating ...'
Ensemble. A dazzling mix - Bohuslav Martinu's 'The Greek Passion' at London's Covent Garden, reviewed by Robert Hugill
Record box. A beautiful luminosity - Mozart for organ and flute in Prague, reviewed by Malcolm Tattersall
Ensemble. Richly sumptuous - The Czech Moravian Virtuosi Orchestra sparkles in novelties from Europe, by Lawrence Budmen
Ensemble. Beyond perfection - Mahler's Resurrection Symphony: Levine's farewell concert in Munich, by Tess Crebbin
Ensemble. An evening full of Hampsongs - by Sissy von Kotzebue
Ensemble. Pas de posthorn - John Neumeier's choreography of Mahler's Third Symphony, reviewed by Sissy von Kotzebue
DVD Spotlight. Prophetic merit - Thomas Hampson sings Mahler's 'Des Knaben Wunderhorn', appreciated by Tess Crebbin. '... a stunning visual and auditory experience.'
CD Spotlight. A salad-days genius - The violin concerto by Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, reviewed by Robert Anderson. '... a clean-cut precision throughout the work ...'
Ensemble. Early music in focus - Musica Florea and Zelenka's baroque opera 'Sub olea pacis et palma virtutis', by Tess Crebbin and Sissy von Kotzebue
Ensemble. Muscular performance - Rex Harley is left breathless listening to violinist Chloë Hanslip
Special significance - Tess Crebbin reports on the start of the Europamusicale in Germany
Singing Dvorák - Harald Stamm, one of Germany's foremost operatic basses, and a renowned Dvorák Stabat Mater soloist, talks to Tess Crebbin
Choral masterpiece - On the one hundredth anniversary of Dvorák's death, Tess Crebbin writes about one of the most personal settings ever of the Stabat Mater
Ensemble. Czech spirit - Lawrence Budmen is impressed by Zdenek Macal and the New World Symphony
Ask Alice - Alice McVeigh, the agony aunt of classical music, basks in the glory of her successful Dvorák performance ...
CD Spotlight. A complex personality - The Romanesca trio's recording of Biber Violin Sonatas, recommended by Ron Bierman. '... the performances are outstanding.'
Listening with baroque ears - Robert Hugill investigates the world of collaborative opera
Ensemble. A new group in the making - Bill Newman listens to the Rosamunde Trio
CD Spotlight. Passionate enthusiasm - The orchestral music of Meyer Kupferman, discovered by Patric Standford. '... a sustained quality that is Kupferman's own, widely spread and generous, emotionally extrovert ...'
CD Spotlight. Teddybears' picnic - Chamber music by Rimsky-Korsakov, reviewed by Robert Anderson. '... idiomatic writing that is a constant delight.'
CD Spotlight. Generous lyricism - Russian cello sonatas, investigated by Robert Anderson. '... alert and accomplished.'
Record box. Sense of occasion - The Dvorák Day Concert, enjoyed by Keith Bramich
CD Spotlight. Fresh lyricism - Dvorák quartets on Praga Digitals, reviewed by Robert Anderson. '... beautifully captured by the Kocian team.'
CD Spotlight. Holstian time-warp - Martinu from the quartet bearing his name, by Roderic Dunnett. '... played with appealing clarity.'
Record box. On the water - Music by Anthony Iannaccone, heard by Basil Ramsey
Ensemble. Matched to perfection - Rex Harley closes his eyes and enjoys the Gould Piano Trio
Kvapil in concert - Malcolm Miller attends a fascinating masterclass and recital
Ensemble. Strengths and weaknesses - Rex Harley listens to 'Jenufa' at Welsh National Opera
CD Spotlight. A kinder approach - Music by Biber, played by The Parley of Instruments, and recommended by Ron Bierman
Record box. Deeply affecting - Remembering the Holocaust, by Keith Bramich
Four is hardly a crowd - Bill Newman enjoys an evening's entertainment by Piano 40 at London's Purcell Room, Wednesday 5 February 2003
CD Spotlight. Colourful ideas - The music of David Gaines, explored by Patric Standford. '... bright and clear ...'
CD Spotlight. Graceful panache - Listening to Dvorák arrangements with Robert Anderson. '... effective and highly accomplished.'
Ensemble. Hour of Magic - Malcolm Miller is enthralled by seldom-heard East European music
Ensemble. Miracle for Bohemia! - 'La clemenza di Tito' at Covent Garden, with Robert Anderson
Ensemble. Female insurgence - Roderic Dunnett visits Garsington Opera for a feast of Mozart, Rossini and rare Janácek
Record box. Dvorák on the edge - His Stabat Mater reconsidered, by Basil Ramsey
Profile. Life and experience - The Czech conductor Jirí Belohlávek talks to Roderic Dunnett
Record box. Golden tone - Keith Bramich listens to the bassoon virtuoso Gwydion Brooke
CD Spotlight. Imagination and strength - The Gilgamesh epic, recounted by Robert Anderson. '... Zdenek Kosler admirably explores the depth of meaning Martinu revealed in the ancient tale ...'
CD Spotlight. Kipnis' Cocktails - Dances by Dvorák, Brahms and Grieg, reviewed by Jennifer Paull. 'This particular mosaic of magical components is just right!'
Record box. Intriguing selection - Keith Bramich listens to contemporary music on the Vienna Modern Masters label
A Prague wedding - An occasional addendum to last year's 'Captivating Moments', with Juliet Averay
Ensemble - Profoundly life-enhancing. Rex Harley experiences Janácek's 'The Cunning Little Vixen' in the current Welsh National Opera revival, on 24 May 2002 at Cardiff New Theatre, conducted by Sir Charles Mackerras
CD Spotlight - Varied moods. '... a fine account of the music ...' Risto Lauriala plays the piano music of Josef Suk, considered by Robert Anderson
Site seeing - Ludwig's torso ... another visit to the world of music websites, with Keith Bramich
CD Spotlight - Intensely idiomatic. '... beautifully played ... sensitively directed ...' Antonín Tucapský's Violin and Viola Concertos, as heard by Peter Dale
Second Sight. Music with Wilfrid Mellers - Civilisation and the Savage State. Janácek's 'Vixen' at Opera North. '... Annabelle Arden's magically imaginative production ...'
Sharing the response - Bill Newman in conversation with Petr Altrichter (concluded from last week)
Sharing the response - Bill Newman in conversation with Petr Altrichter (continued from last week)
Sharing the response - Bill Newman in conversation with Petr Altrichter
Record Box - Floating. Bohemian Flute Concertos, with Basil Ramsey
Engagingly accessible - Malcolm Miller reports on the UK première of Peter Breiner's jazzy Piano Trio
Record box - Speaking out. The little-known Slavický, with Basil Ramsey
Paying tribute - The Editor's Quarterly Surprise
CD Spotlight - Definitely among the greats. '... Podvalová's Sárka is a celebrated interpretation.' A Marie Podvalová operatic recital, with Roderic Dunnett
Site seeing - Silver discs - record labels online, with Keith Bramich
CD Spotlight - Beautiful vision. 'This is a spectacularly interesting recital ...' The Golden Voice of the Prague National Theatre, with Roderic Dunnett
CD Spotlight - Circuit of excellence. '... the Lindsays provide performances matching the quality that strides through some of the best of Dvorák.' Dvorák well served, with Basil Ramsey
Planning your collection - Bartok and Janacek -
Berlin Festival Diary - Five weeks condensed into three, with Bill Newman (concluded from last week)
Berlin Festival Diary - Five weeks condensed into three, with Bill Newman (continued from last week)
CD Spotlight - An early Kipnis recording, with Ann Bond
Record Box - Dussek in good light - Stylistic pleasures, with Basil Ramsey
Planning your collection - Steven Wray and Sam Haywood, with Bill Newman
Planning your collection - Lukas Vondracek -
CD Spotlight - Resplendent Imagery. '...this whole CD does the greatest honour to a sadly neglected genius.' Bill Newman discusses the orchestral music of Víteslav Novák.
Record Box - Planning your collection - Dvorak, British light music, Swedish orchestral favourites, Gilbert and Sullivan -